Damocles: Ruler of High Anxiety
“The Sword of Damocles is hanging over my head
And I've got the feeling someone's gonna be cutting the thread
Oh, woe is me, my life is a mystery
Oh, can't you see that I'm at the start of a pretty big downer?”
--From The Rocky Horror Picture Show
In varying degrees, we all have known the feeling. You just know that something ‘bad’ is going to happen. Sometimes, you get one piece of bad news, and you wait for the rest….you wait for ‘the other shoe to drop.’ Other times, you have no overt signs, but you simply know that there’s going to be a letter, or a phone call….and the Sword is going to drop.
For the past few centuries, astrologers would often point to Uranus as being the bearer of the earthshaking news. If something unexpected happened (good or bad), this planet was usually the point that was ‘blamed’. But if you look a little closer, this far away body is sometimes actually visible to the naked eye…if you have 20-20 vision, a clear night, and you know where to look. And this is a metaphor for Uranus’ astrology….its events are not always unexpected…if you can see clearly, and are looking in the right direction.
In 1991, however, an astronomer discovered a very unusual, totally new type of body which may very well be the missing link for such ‘unexpected’ events.. On February 18, while searching photographic plates, Rob McNaught found a small body that no one had noticed previously. It was Minor Planet #5335, and Rob named it Damocles.
Damocles was an unusual name to give an astronomical body back then. The tradition was to choose a mythological being, and Damocles had been a real person. The naming foreshadowed the astrological meanings, for Damocles focuses on things that are very real to us.
WHO WAS DAMOCLES?
Damocles, the person, lived in Syracuse, Sicily in the 4th Century BC, and was a member of the court of Dionysius II.
In many ways, Damocles was a decent sort, but he had a very bad habit: he was an excessive flatterer. He would constantly talk about how wonderful Dionysius was, how great and marvelous it was to be such a powerful ruler, and how much he (Damocles) would love to have such great wealth as his ruler. Eventually, Dionysius grew tired of this, and decided to teach Damocles a lesson.
So the ruler invited Damocles to the palace for a feast. When he arrived, everywhere he looked he saw wondrous food, and great wealth. He must have thought he was being rewarded for his loyalty. All went well, until he was seated, and had occasion to look up. For there, hanging directly over his head, was a very large, sharp sword. And it was tied, not with a rope, but with a single hair.
This, the tyrant explained to Damocles, was what life as ruler was really like, with an omnipresent danger that accompanied the wealth and material pleasures of being the ruler. Damocles, alarmed and quickly revising his idea of what made up a good life, asked to be excused. He then eagerly returned to his poorer, but safer life.
Since then, the phrase, "Sword of Damocles" has come to represent any threat of danger, or an impending threat of personal disaster.
MINOR PLANET DAMOCLES HANGING OVER OUR HEADS
This little body appears to be aptly named. One of the things it seems to represent, astrologically, is the threat or fear of a disaster about to happen, or of something about to simply self-destruct.
It is an accepted astrological aphorism that, once a new body is discovered, we can learn much about its nature by events around the world that occur around the same time. (Although it was an influence prior to the discovery, humanity was aware of its type of energies.) Therefore, the nature of Damocles should be reflected in events of 1991.
Think back to a country that the world knew then as the U.S.S.R. The Communist leaders made it up of many countries ‘grafted’ together, and its influence also included many ‘satellite’ nations.
There were rumblings of discontent around the Soviet Bloc prior to 1991, but look what happened that year. In January, Lithuania tried to declare its independence, and the Soviets sent troops in to stop it. But the momentum had begun and, in February, voters there voted for independence anyway. On April 9, shortly after Damocles was announced to the world, Georgia shocked the world by declaring its independence from the USSR. Next, Croatia and Slovenia declared their independence from the Soviet bloc country Yugoslavia. The Warsaw Pack was officially dissolved. Then came Estonia, Latvia, Moldova, Kyrgyzstan, Macedonia, and more. By the end of the year, on December 26, the USSR disbanded, which forever changed the world’s political scenery. 1991 will always be remembered as the year the Soviet Union fell apart.
So Damocles’ influence brought about a surge of freedom….a powerful desire for each nation to chart its own course.
But what of the USSR itself? If Damocles was directly connected with this breakup, we should also find a direct connection with the chart for the U.S.S.R., right? Well, I won’t disappoint you. The discovery position of Damocles, marking the point where it entered humanity’s consciousness, was exactly conjunct the Sun in the chart for the U.S.S.R. ! The Sword had been hanging over the Soviet Union, and 1991 was the year they looked up and saw it about to come crashing on their heads.
Another example of Damocles’ pushing the desire to chart one’s own path can be seen with Germany. Only weeks after Damocles was discovered, Germany officially became completely independent for the first time since the end of World War II’s occupation by the Allied Forces. Germany was once again completely responsible for its own destiny.
What else is 1991 known for? On March 4, the most primitive form of the World Wide Web went online and, by August 6, the Web debuted as a publicly available service on the Internet. Millions of people are freed of the restraints of time and space, and can travel the world, search for information on anything the desire, without leaving the confines of their own house. But the WWW opened up a whole new world, with unplanned consequences that are still shaking the foundation of life, and society.
So what about the body Damocles is so unique? Let’s start with its makeup. Damocles is made of dark material, one of the darkest objects known in the solar system. Its color is a dark red. (There are other bodies that are redder, including many of the Centaurs, but not darker.)
Astronomers have come to believe that Damocles is the nucleus of a Halley-type comet that lost all of its volatile materials over time. One could call it a burnt-out comet or a comet core.
And its orbit bears a close resemblance to that of a periodic comet, like Halley’s. When it is furthest from the Sun (aphelion), it reaches 22 AU, which is beyond the orbit of Uranus (19.75 AU at its aphelion.) (At the time of its discovery, no asteroid-like body had ever been found out that far.) And when it is closest to the Sun (perihelion), it is only 1.6 AU, which means it crosses the orbit of Mars (1.41 AU at its perihelion.) Even the shape of its orbit is comet-like. Astronomers use a term ‘eccentricity’. A perfect circle has an eccentricity of 0, and a straight line an eccentricity of 1. Venus has an almost circular orbit of 0.06774, while fairly eccentric Chiron is 0.3847424. But Damocles has an eccentricity of 0.866902, which is like that of a comet. (Halley’s Comet has an eccentricity of 0.967.)
This eccentricity makes its orbit very unique for a minor planet. As you know, Uranus takes almost 84 years to orbit the Sun, and Damocles goes out even further than Uranus….but it makes a full orbit in 41.01 years. And what a strange orbit it is.
With a regular planet, you can say without debate that it takes approximately ‘X’ number of years to go through each sign. With Saturn, for example, you can count on about 2-1/2 years of journeying through Aries, 2-1/2 through Taurus, etc. With a more eccentric body like Pluto, you can expect it to stay in one sign longer than another, so it was not a surprise that it went through Scorpio in about 12 years, but took over 30 to go through the opposite sign Taurus. But Damocles takes this to the extreme.
Damocles spends most of each cycle….an average of 30 years….in the sign Aquarius. It spends another 2 to 3 years in Capricorn, and perhaps 4-5 years in Pisces. Then, it breezes through the other nine signs, sometimes taking as little as a month to go through one of them!
What does this mean astrologically? The mind boggles.
For starters, about three-quarters of the earth’s population, at any given time, have Damocles in Aquarius. Damocles in Capricorn and Pisces, while not as plentiful, still make up a large percent of the remaining population.
Thus, the majority of humanity have Damocles in one of the Winter Signs, which represent the protecting and sustaining of the life force to keep it alive through the cold, inhospitable months. If it were not for the strength of these signs, there would be no bursting forth of life come Springtime. These are the signs that recognize, on one level or another, the importance of survival to all humanity, and the importance of protecting the unique spark that lies within us.
But what if you have Damocles in one of the other signs? Then you are a part of a very small minority, and your perceptions of life, and survival, and dealing with threats that may hang over your head, are much different than those of most of the people around you.
Interestingly, Damocles was not discovered in Aquarius, where it spends most of its time, but at 11 Scorpio 05. However, the Sun was in Aquarius at the discovery.
Let’s look at this ‘minority’ time over the past century…the times when Damocles was not in Capricorn, Aquarius or Pisces:
DAMOCLES SIGN ENTRY/EXIT DATES ENTRY/EXIT DATES
ARIES 4/19/1908-10/4/1908 2/6/1909-4/21/1909
CANCER 8/9/1909-10/2/1909 1/16/1910-5/23/1910
LEO 10/2/1909-1/16/1910 5/23/1910-7/10/1910
CAPRICORN ENTERS 1/2/1911
DAMOCLES SIGN ENTRY/EXIT DATES ENTRY/EXIT DATES
ARIES 5/17/1948-8/27/1948 3/3/1949-5/28/1949
TAURUS 5/28/1949-8/16/1949 11/8/1949-3/15/1950
GEMINI 8/16/1949-11/8/1949 3/15/1950-5/9/1950
CAPRICORN ENTERS 2/3/1951
DAMOCLES SIGN ENTRY/EXIT DATES ENTRY/EXIT DATES
ARIES 3/26/1989-11/18/1989 12/30/1989-3/17/1990
VIRGO 10/11/1990-12/9/1990 5/3/1991-5/17/1991
LIBRA 12/9/1990-1/31/1991 4/14/1991-5/3/1991 & 5/17/1991-7/14/1991
SCORPIO 1/31/1991-4/14/1991 7/14/1991-9/16/1991
CAPRICORN ENTERS 12/3/1991
This unusual orbit plays other tricks on the astrologer, as well. Take, for example, a simple aspect such as the Sun conjunct Damocles. You would expect that, no matter what sign it is in, this aspect will occur every year, right? Wrong. The Sun/Damocles conjunction occurs consistently, year after year, in Aquarius, gradually moving through the sign, and then more quickly through Pisces. But once it leaves that sign, most of the remaining signs never see a conjunction between the Sun and Damocles! And once every cycle, a year will pass where there is no Sun/Damocles conjunction at all.
Here is a table of Sun/Damocles conjunctions:
1900 Feb 15 25 Aquarius 54
1901 Feb 16 27 Aquarius 1
1902 Feb 17 28 Aquarius 18
1903 Feb 19 29 Aquarius 49
1904 Feb 21 1 Pisces 42
1905 Feb 23 4 Pisces 1
1906 Feb 26 7 Pisces 14
1907 Mar 3 12 Pisces 14
1908 Mar 12 21 Pisces 55
1909 Apr 20 29 Aries 23
1910 Dec 13 20 Sagittarius 36
1912 Jan 13 21 Capricorn 27
1913 Jan 19 28 Capricorn 30
1914 Jan 23 2 Aquarius 13
1915 Jan 25 4 Aquarius 43
1916 Jan 27 6 Aquarius 33
1917 Jan 28 8 Aquarius 3
1918 Jan 29 9 Aquarius 17
1919 Jan 31 10 Aquarius 19
1920 Feb 1 11 Aquarius 20
1921 Feb 1 12 Aquarius 12
1922 Feb 2 13 Aquarius 0
1923 Feb 3 13 Aquarius 46
1924 Feb 4 14 Aquarius 29
1925 Feb 4 15 Aquarius 11
1926 Feb 5 15 Aquarius 51
1927 Feb 6 16 Aquarius 31
1928 Feb 7 17 Aquarius 10
1929 Feb 7 17 Aquarius 48
1930 Feb 7 18 Aquarius 27
1931 Feb 8 19 Aquarius 5
1932 Feb 9 19 Aquarius 43
1933 Feb 9 20 Aquarius 22
1934 Feb 10 21 Aquarius 3
1935 Feb 11 21 Aquarius 45
1936 Feb 12 22 Aquarius 29
1937 Feb 12 23 Aquarius 16
1938 Feb 13 24 Aquarius 5
1939 Feb 14 24 Aquarius 59
1940 Feb 15 25 Aquarius 57
1941 Feb 16 27 Aquarius 3
1942 Feb 17 28 Aquarius 15
1943 Feb 19 29 Aquarius 41
1944 Feb 21 1 Pisces 22
1945 Feb 22 3 Pisces 28
1946 Feb 25 6 Pisces 18
1947 Mar 1 10 Pisces 31
1948 Mar 8 17 Pisces 56
1949 Mar 29 8 Aries 19
1950 Aug 23 29 Leo 49
1952 Jan 9 17 Capricorn 41
1953 Jan 17 27 Capricorn 14
1954 Jan 22 1 Aquarius 41
1955 Jan 25 4 Aquarius 28
1956 Jan 27 6 Aquarius 28
1957 Jan 28 8 Aquarius 3
1958 Jan 29 9 Aquarius 21
1959 Jan 31 10 Aquarius 29
1960 Feb 1 11 Aquarius 30
1961 Feb 1 12 Aquarius 24
1962 Feb 2 13 Aquarius 15
1963 Feb 3 14 Aquarius 2
1964 Feb 4 14 Aquarius 47
1965 Feb 4 15 Aquarius 29
1966 Feb 5 16 Aquarius 9
1967 Feb 6 16 Aquarius 48
1968 Feb 7 17 Aquarius 27
1969 Feb 7 18 Aquarius 5
1970 Feb 7 18 Aquarius 43
1971 Feb 8 19 Aquarius 20
1972 Feb 9 19 Aquarius 59
1973 Feb 9 20 Aquarius 39
1974 Feb 10 21 Aquarius 19
1975 Feb 11 22 Aquarius 1
1976 Feb 12 22 Aquarius 44
1977 Feb 12 23 Aquarius 29
1978 Feb 13 24 Aquarius 17
1979 Feb 14 25 Aquarius 8
1980 Feb 15 26 Aquarius 2
1981 Feb 15 27 Aquarius 5
1982 Feb 17 28 Aquarius 14
1983 Feb 18 29 Aquarius 34
1984 Feb 20 1 Pisces 8
1985 Feb 21 3 Pisces 6
1986 Feb 24 5 Pisces 38
1987 Feb 28 9 Pisces 14
1988 Mar 5 15 Pisces 7
1989 Mar 18 28 Pisces 5
1990 Jun 12 21 Gemini 34
1991 Dec 31 9 Capricorn 20
1993 Jan 15 25 Capricorn 9
1994 Jan 21 0 Aquarius 44
1995 Jan 24 3 Aquarius 58
1996 Jan 26 6 Aquarius 14
1997 Jan 27 7 Aquarius 57
1998 Jan 29 9 Aquarius 22
1999 Jan 30 10 Aquarius 35
2000 Feb 1 11 Aquarius 37
2001 Feb 1 12 Aquarius 33
2002 Feb 2 13 Aquarius 24
2003 Feb 3 14 Aquarius 11
2004 Feb 4 14 Aquarius 56
2005 Feb 4 15 Aquarius 38
2006 Feb 5 16 Aquarius 19
2007 Feb 6 16 Aquarius 59
2008 Feb 7 17 Aquarius 38
2009 Feb 6 18 Aquarius 16
2010 Feb 7 18 Aquarius 54
Think about the ramifications of all this.
For several years in a row, the world experiences a Sun/Damocles conjunction around the same dates. The world’s perception of the sign Aquarius is colored by the conjunction. How much of our ideas of the nature of Aquarius actually come from Damocles being there?
And then, for a few years, Damocles conjuncts the Sun in other signs. These are odd years, that don’t fit the expected pattern. Are Aquarians born in these years less unpredictable than when Damocles occupies the sign? Are people born with Damocles conjunct the Sun in one of these other years, people who just don’t quite fit the descriptions of their zodiac sign?
With Damocles spending most of its time in Aquarius, the odds are pretty good that, if you have several bodies in Aquarius, at least one of them is conjunct Damocles. Could some of the ‘unexpected’ influence we associate with being ruled by Uranus actually stem from Damocles in Aquarius instead? How about the Aquarian love of following their own rules, finding their own path….perhaps Damocles has a hand in this?
To add another Aquarian indicator to Damocles, think about this: Damocles has its North Node in that sign. Thus, the direction Damocles wants to take us is an Aquarian one.
HYPERACTIVE, CONSTANTLY STRESSED
Observing people with strong conjunctions natally between Damocles and personal planets, one of the things that seem to stand out is that they live at a higher state of stress than the average person. Damocles transits often bring a feeling that ‘something is going to happen’, along with the accompanying higher stress level.
Let’s look at a whole group of people who live in a constant state of stress. Dr. Gerald P. Koocher worked with young cancer patients who managed to ‘beat’ the cancer, or go into remission. He noted that, for many years after, they carried a stressful fear that the cancer was not gone permanently….a feeling that, one of these days, when they least expected it, they were going to take seriously ill again. He wrote a book on the subject, where he said that it was as if these children spent their lives with a sword hanging over their heads, and they never knew if, or when it would fall. His term, “The Damocles Syndrome”, has become widely accepted in the medical community.
My mother contracted Ovarian Cancer following a Solar Return with Damocles two degrees from her Sun, and went through a spectrum of treatments recommended by her physician. If you know anything about such treatments, they put a very high level of stress on the body. For a while, it seemed as if she were beating the illness. Then, in her solar return of 1999, her Sun was exactly conjunct Damocles, and the following day there was a Lunar Eclipse. Shortly after her birthday, without warning, the cancer returned with a vengeance, and a half-year later, she passed away.
If you study the charts of Cancer patients, don’t be surprised to find Damocles a prominent fixture.
LIVE FAST, DIE YOUNG
What about people who had cometary careers, but burnt out too young? Perhaps it won’t surprise you to know that James Dean had Damocles conjunct his Sun, and Marilyn Monroe had it conjunct her Moon; Jim Morrison had Damocles rising, closely opposition his Jupiter, and square his MC/IC axis; and Janis Joplin, had rising Damocles closely conjunct her Ascendant and South Lunar Node.
DAMOCLES AND WORLD EVENTS
Even though we may not be aware of a body’s influence prior to its discovery, that doesn’t mean it doesn’t have one. Looking back at events on or near Damocles conjunctions with the outer planets, we can glean more insight into the nature of this little body.
Damocles conjunct Saturn
May 28, 1908, 7 Aries 43.
At Masjid-al-Salaman in southwest Persia, the first major commercial oil strike in the Middle East was made. This was the beginning of a major change in the way the world viewed the Middle East, and how the Middle Eastern countries viewed their own destiny.
September 6, 1908, 8 Aries 28.
The world’s first airplane crash. Orville Wright took a passenger into the air, but there was something wrong with the plane, and it plummeted to the ground, injuring Orville, and making his passenger the first person to die in a plane crash.
March 4, 1909, 9 Aries 23.
William Howard Taft was inaugurated as US President on this date, and so his presidency has a Damocles/Saturn quality throughout, including alienating of both big business, and the opposing antitrust reformers.
September 22, 1950, 19 Virgo 36.
US Congress passed the McCarran Internal Security Act, which stated that all communist-front organizations must register with the Attorney-General, all communists were prohibited from working in national defense, no entry into the U.S. of anyone who was a member of a totalitarian organization, and established the Subversive Activities Control Board. A section of this bill even authorized the implementation of procedures, modeled on those used to incarcerate people of Japanese descent during World War II, which would be used against those, assumed to be Communists or Communist sympathizers, who might commit acts of espionage or sabotage in time or war or national emergency.
Damocles conjunct Uranus:
May 22, 1950, 7 Cancer 22.
Simon, which has been called the world’s first personal computer, was built for around $600. It performed basic arithmetic functions, and could be carried in one hand.
Damocles conjunct Neptune:
September 11, 1909, 18 Cancer 51.
Comet Halley is caught on a photographic plate for the first time.
October 29, 1950, 17 Libra 45.
Sister Mary Teresa begins her charity work in Calcutta and becomes known as Mother Teresa
January 27, 1992, 17 Capricorn 10. (With Uranus only 2 degrees away)
Boris Yeltsin announces that Russia is going to stop targeting United States cities with nuclear weapons
Damocles conjunct Pluto:
August 3, 1909, 26 Gemini 21.
The Rosicrucian Fellowship was launched August 8 by Max Heindel as herald of the Aquarian Age and with the aim of promulgating the Rosicrucian teachings.
March 5, 1991, 20 Scorpio 20.
Two days before, Rodney King is brutally beaten by Los Angeles police. When this event went to trial, three of the officers were acquitted of the charges, and this
verdict triggered massive rioting in Los Angeles, which lasted for 3 days, making it one of the worst civil disturbances in Los Angeles history.
Now, let’s go back to the period 1955-1956. During that period of time, Chiron, Pholus, Heracles and Damocles were all very close together, in the first decanate of Aquarius. What did this mean for the world? The tension level was very, very high:
During this period, the United States and Mainland China came perilously close to war over Nationalist China. Nikita Khrushchev emerged as 'the' power in Russia, and declared his famous "We will bury you." Rosa Parks, in December 1954, refused to be moved, insisted on sitting in the front of a bus, and made history. On the other hand, the governors of Virginia, Georgia, Mississippi and South Carolina united to try to fight the integration of schools. The first atomic submarine was launched..
AREAS DESERVING STUDY
A Damocles return at age 41 might be significant. There seems to be a change, where there is pressure, and stress of one kind or another, which causes one’s life to take an irreversible turn in a new direction. But it’s difficult to be sure, because other major planetary passages happen around the same time: Neptune square natal Neptune, and Uranus opposition natal Uranus. Perhaps Damocles is just another major contributor towards this life change.
When talking about Damocles and cancer patients, I mentioned the lunar eclipse in January 1999 where the Sun (11 Aquarius 20) was conjunct Damocles 10 Aquarius 35.) Here are a few more Damoclean eclipses. How did Damocles manifest in each one?
February 10, 1933 Lunar Eclipse. Sun 21 Aquarius 22, Damocles 20 Aquarius 24.
February 20, 1943 Lunar Eclipse. Sun 0 Pisces 43, Damocles 29 Aquarius 44.
February 5, 1962 Solar Eclipse. Sun 15 Aquarius 43, Damocles 13 Aquarius 22. This one, however, was a very special Aquarius eclipse, which also had Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in Aquarius, as well as Centaurs Pholus and Chariklo. And Neptune at 13 Scorpio 28 was closely square Damocles.
February 10, 1971 Lunar Eclipse. Sun 20 Aquarius 55, Damocles 19 Aquarius 21.
February 16, 1980 Solar Eclipse. Sun 26 Aquarius 50, Damocles 26 Aquarius 05.
DAMOCLES HAS COMPANY
Just when some astrologers began to accept Damocles as being a unique, but important, new astrological tool, astronomers found other bodies that were like smaller versions of Damocles. They have now grouped them together as a new class of minor planet, and bodies of this class are called Damocloids. (There are about thirty of them at this writing.) They are all made of this same very dark, reddish material, and are believed to have originated in the Oort cloud. Some of them even have retrograde orbits! Damocles, though, is the largest, and will always be the most significant.
At this writing, only one of the other Damocloids has been named, a rather large one with a retrograde orbit. The discoverer named it Dioretsa, and I tried and tried to find out what mythological or historical personage it was named after. My face was red when I figured it out: Dioretsa is Asteroid spelled backwards. He named it that way because of its retrograde orbit.
Dioretsa, minor planet #20461, was discovered June 8, 1999, and its orbit is even more eccentric than Damocles, falling at 0.900. It takes 116.59 years for one orbit of the Sun.
It should be the subject of another article, so I won’t talk much more about her here, other than to say that its fun looking at an ephemeris for something that moves backwards through the zodiac, like the lunar nodes. But it is definitely worth exploring. (Of course, I’m biased: I have Dioretsa at 10 Aries 53, conjunct my first house Jupiter almost exactly.)
The World Book Encyclopedia, article entitled “Damocles” by Peter Krentz, copyright 1994 by World Book, Inc.
Astronomy Magazine, July 1991, article entitled “Most Distant Asteroid Discovered”.
The World Almanac and Book of Facts, copyright 1993 by Funk & Wagnals Corporation.
Ephemeris of Damocles, copyright 1994 by Zane B Stein, publisher Al H. Morrison.
Zane B Stein’s Damocles webpage: http://www.zanestein.com/damocles.htm
Orbital Elements of Damocles in a letter from Dr. Brian Marsden, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, March 3, 1994.
Damocles Discovery information in a letter from Robert McNaught to Zane B Stein, April 4, 1995.
“CHILDHOOD CANCER: HOW IT AFFECTS FAMILIES” by JUDY KLEMESRUD
February 1, 1982, New York Times.
Rocky Horror Picture Show Fansite: http://www.cosmosfactory.org/rocky_song_sword.shtml
Wikipedia Internet Encyclopedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
Catalog of Asteroid and Comet links: http://www.hohmanntransfer.com/catchall.htm#an
Minor Planet Center List of Unusual Objects:
© 2006 by Zane Stein. All rights reserved.
Zane Stein is a professional astrologer and researcher. He is the pioneer Chiron researcher, which led to his seminal work, “Essence and Application: A View From Chiron”. His website (see below) explores Chiron, the many Centaurean bodies, asteroids, and bodies out past Pluto (including Sedna, and the new Tenth Planet.) He can be reached by email at: email@example.com
Website address: http://www.zanestein.com/chiron.htm